CHAZI, New York – Newborn calves are the most susceptible to cold stress on dairy farms.

“Calves less than three weeks old start to develop a 59-degree cold stress,” said Sarah Morrison, a research scientist at the William H. Mineral Research Institute. “Once it is below 59 degrees, calves can be very challenging to maintain their body temperature.”

Milk calves have a low surface-mass ratio.

“This means they have a lot more room to lose body heat than an old animal,” Morrison said in a speech at the host Deirman host Webinar. And because they do not have much fat or hair, they have a very weak immune system, which makes it very difficult for them to keep their body warm.

Feeding cholesterol for calves helps produce heat.

“It has a high fat and protein percentage, which helps to start their metabolic capacity,” Morrison said.

Some calves most prone to frostbite are born with cows with dystocia.

“If the mother has severe birth defects, these calves are more likely to lose heat,” Morrison said. It is estimated to be 36 percent lower than that of normal calves.

Dairy products It is important to reduce the time between calving and dryness of the calf.

“Calves’ body temperature rises sharply when their hair is wet,” Morrison said. “We want our hair to be dry and warm because it doubles the depth of the hair and helps to provide extra protection.”

One way to warm the calves is with a warm box.

“Water baths are faster and more efficient by heating calves,” Morrison said. “I’m not saying give hot water to all your calves, but if you are looking for a calf this may be a way to warm the calf faster.”

Calves have a routine to use the nutrients they get from the liquid diet.

“Energy and protein sources go ahead with the maintenance requirements needed to maintain their body temperature and immune system,” Morrison said. “Therefore, if they have additional maintenance requirements, they will meet basic needs and will not be left unattended.”

When the temperature drops from 59 to 32 degrees, Morrison said, the calf’s need for metabolic energy increased by 35%.

“It’s an 82% increase when it reaches 0 degrees,” she said.

There may be lasting effects on calves that suffer from cold stress when the cows go into lactation.

A study by Cornell University found that calves ate the same nutrient program at different times of the year.

“Calves were born with a lower temperature than the temperature-neutral zone, so they had high requirements for maintenance,” Morrison said. “When you first started breastfeeding, you were producing a little milk during the first breastfeeding so this will have a lasting effect on your herd.”

There are many ways for dairy products to add nutrients to young calves, such as a lot of milk or milk substitutes at one meal.

“Sometimes it’s helpful to add more food or you can increase the firmness without changing the volume,” Morrison said.

However, Morrison warns against overdosing on dairy products.

“You have to provide more water,” Morrison said.

“Consider monitoring the temperature of the water when mixing and eating,” she said. “The milk supplied to the calf should be above body temperature so the hot water heater on demand may be very important to maintain a constant supply of water.”

To promote beginner picking, Morrison says, expect each calf to eat four servings of water.

“If a calf is eating a pound, a beginner should drink at least half a gallon of water,” she said. “If the water is hot, you will have a better chance of drinking.”

The purpose of the calf is to reduce the effects of cold conditions and to protect the calves from heat stress.

“It should also provide adequate ventilation with fresh air,” Morrison said.

“We want to make sure the calves are clean and dry, at least three inches apart between the calf and the floor,” she said. “You can kneel on the bed to see if it is wet and if the calf needs extra bedding.”

According to Morrison, wheat straw is a great bed for calves.

“It provides an environment where calves can create their own micro-climate,” she said. “They heat the air pocket and do not lose as much heat as the environment.”

To ensure that the calves have enough beds to take care of their nests, Morrison said, dairy farmers can use bedding to assess bedding.

“For 1 point, when the calf is asleep, the legs are fully visible; for 2 points, the legs are partially visible; and for 3 points, the legs are generally invisible when lying down,” she said.

According to Morrison, bedding is not just for the nest. It is also associated with the spread of respiratory disease.

“This study compared different nesting results with the spread of respiratory disease,” Morrison said. The general trend is that we have lower incidence, so the prevalence of respiratory diseases is higher.