Cortisol It is the main stress hormone in your body. Cortisol helps control your emotions. He is also involved in fear and motivation.

Cortisol also plays a role. This article describes the many functions of cortisol, how it works, the conditions associated with it, how to diagnose it, and more.

ttsz / Getty Images


What is cortisol?

Cortisol is a naturally occurring steroid. It is made up of your adrenal glands. This compound controls how it is used throughout your body.

  • HypothalamusA region of the brain that regulates autonomic functions (such as hormone control and temperature control) and emotional activity
  • Pituitary Gland“Master Tumor” is a pea-size tumor associated with the hypothalamus. It produces hormones that control many functions in your body.
  • Adrenal glandsSmall triangular tumors on your kidneys. They produce hormones that regulate anxiety, metabolism, blood pressure, immunity, and more.

These three structures are called the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal shaft (HPA axis).

Most cells in your body have cortisol receptors. This means that cortisol has an effect on the body.

What are the cell receptors?

Cell receptor proteins are proteins on the surface of a cell or in a cell. They receive chemical messages that regulate cellular activity. Hormones such as cortisol can regulate and alter processes in your body, such as metabolism and immune response. The cell’s response to cortisol varies according to the cell type.

What is the function of cortisol?

Cortisol is an essential hormone for many functions. Participates in funeral-

  • Metabolism
  • Reduce swelling
  • Memory formation
  • Water and salt balance
  • blood pressure
  • Fetal development

Cortisol levels fluctuate throughout the day. Generally, they are great when you wake up and fall asleep all day.

When you deal with stress, your body releases more cortisol to pass you by. This is called an acute stress response or “fight or flight” response.

Struggle or flight response

Cortisol is called the stress hormone, which is a response to stress. The answer is if something appears to be threatening you in some way.

Basically, this response gives you the physical resources needed to fight your way out of a dangerous situation or to avoid it. It is an instantaneous chain reaction.

It will happen-

  • You feel scared or anxious.
  • The sympathetic nervous system (responsible for the fight-or-flight response) tells the adrenal glands to release the adrenaline and norepinephrine hormones.
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine immediately increase your heart rate, blood flow in the muscles, and speed of reaction.
  • If the risk persists, the HPA shaft may stimulate the release of pituitary gland adrenocorticosteroid hormone (ACTH). This hormone works to increase the amount of cortisol in your blood.
  • Cortisol stimulates cells to release glucose into your bloodstream, providing fuel for your brain and muscles and helping you cope with stress.

When high stress occurs, the body shuts down its functions to conserve energy. That will make it more useful for your body. For example, it can slow down digestion or slow down the immune system.

When the stress is gone, cortisol helps the body return to its natural state.

Summary

Cortisol is a hormone that regulates anxiety, metabolism, “fight or flight” responses and many other important functions. It is made up of adrenal glands. Steps and uses are regulated by the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenals (HPA axis).

Related conditions: high cortisol

When cortisol is in good condition, your body works better. Both high and low cortisol levels are associated with medical conditions.

High cortisol levels can be a symptom of Cushing’s syndrome or chronic stress which can lead to other health problems.

Chronic stress

Chronic stress can lead to high cortisol levels. This can have a negative impact on your health.

Anxiety can arise from difficult situations, such as work or caring for a sick person. Excessive anxiety can also occur.

This keeps the body in a state of extreme alertness. This will make you more responsive to more stress during the day. Maybe a slight delay in your busy schedule will send your anxiety into overdrive.

Symptoms of chronic stress include:

  • Headache
  • Digestive problems
  • Low sexual desire
  • Overeating or overeating
  • Symptoms of anxiety

If chronic stress persists for a long time, it can lead to:

Chronic stress, cortisol levels, and mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety are closely linked. So far, however, experts do not fully understand the relationship.

If you are diagnosed with chronic stress, your healthcare provider may recommend:

You can benefit from lifestyle changes such as exercise and meditation or stress-reducing lifestyle changes such as changing jobs or avoiding unnecessary obligations.

Cushing’s syndrome

A rare condition called Cushing’s syndrome can cause high levels of cortisol over a long period of time. Levels are usually increased by taking synthetic forms of cortisol from the ACTH-producing tumor or cortisol.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome include:

  • Acne
  • Fat accumulation on the back of the neck (called buffalo hump)
  • High blood sugar
  • Fatigue
  • Excessive hair growth
  • Menstrual changes
  • Rapid weight gain primarily on the face and body
  • Folded, round face
  • High blood pressure
  • Minor injury
  • Signs of purple stretch marks on the skin
  • Muscle weakness
  • Anxiety, depression or frustration
  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination

Pituitary gland tumors that lead to Cushing’s are not usually cancerous, but tumors that grow outside the pituitary gland (in the pancreas, thyroid or thymus glands) may be cancerous.

Tummy tuck treatments for tumors are as follows:

  • Surgery to remove the tumor and possibly the tumor on it
  • Radiation to reduce the tumor if surgery is not possible
  • Drugs including Signifor (pasireotide) and Korlym (mifepristone)

For drug overdose, your healthcare provider may reduce your dose. This is a slow and deliberate process to keep steps from getting too fast or too far.

This process can take a long time to show the results, so you may be given other medications to control the symptoms. These may include medications for high blood pressure, high blood sugar or high cholesterol.

If you need treatment for anxiety or depression, you may be referred to a mental health professional.

Summary

High levels of cortisol can be caused by chronic stress, tumors or high levels of corticosteroids. Cushing syndrome is caused by swelling or medication. Treatment for anxiety can include psychotherapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Cushing’s treatment is usually surgery to remove the tumor or reduce corticosteroid levels.

Related conditions: low cortisol

Low cortisol levels are associated with health problems. These include Addison’s disease, fibromyalgia, and myalgic encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME / CFS).

Addison’s disease

Addison is a rare disease. It is also called primary adrenal insufficiency and hypochondrialism.

Addis is a common autoimmune disease that affects the adrenal glands. The symptoms come slowly and can come and go. These include-

  • Severe fatigue
  • Muscle weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness or fainting while standing
  • Frustration
  • Depression
  • Joint pain
  • Demand for salty foods
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
  • Loss of sexual desire
  • Abnormal or missed periods

Addison’s disease is treated with hormone replacement therapy. That usually includes oral steroids:

These medications are adjusted until your hormone levels are at normal levels.

Adrenaline crisis

Adrenaline crisis, or Adonisia crisis, is a rapid, severe decrease in cortisol levels. It can be life threatening. Symptoms include:

  • Severe vomiting or diarrhea that can lead to dehydration
  • Pain in the abdomen, lower back or legs
  • Fainting
  • Muscle spasm
  • Confusion and confusion
  • Extreme thirst
  • Inability to urinate
  • Abnormal heartbeat
  • Persistent muscle paralysis
  • Hypnotic shock (due to low blood pressure)
  • Difficulty breathing

If you experience these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. Adrenaline crisis can lead to death in 16 cases. It treats intravenous (IV) steroids, salt (saline water) and dextrose (diabetes).

Fibromyalgia and ME / CFS

Related conditions Fibromyalgia and ME / CFS both reduced cortisol levels and reduced HPA-‘s function. However, an increase in cortisol levels does not improve symptoms.

That is why experts suspect that HPA-axis dysfunction and low cortisol are the result of the process of fibromyalgia and ME / CFS, not the cause of the disease.

Summary

Low cortisol is often the cause of adenosine deficiency, which is often a disorder of the immune system. It is treated with hormone replacement therapy (corticosteroid drugs). Fibromyalgia and myalgic encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome are associated with low cortisol. But it is not believed to bring about these conditions.

How are cortisol levels tested?

If there are signs of cortisol problems, your healthcare provider may order a blood test to check your level.

Normally, blood is taken twice a day for testing. The first test is performed in the morning when cortisol is at its peak. The second usually takes place around 4pm, when the levels are thought to be very low.

If you are a shift worker or have an irregular schedule for any reason, let your healthcare provider know. The test times may need to be adjusted.

Your cortisol can be tested by saliva or urine. For saliva testing, you will be given a kit to collect samples at night when the level should be low.

For a urine test, you will be asked to collect your urine for 24 hours. You will find instructions and instructions for this.

Be sure to follow the instructions carefully and return to the laboratory for immediate analysis of your tests.

Abnormal cortisol levels may be due to Addison’s, Cushing’s, another medical condition or a temporary change due to:

  • Extreme levels of anxiety
  • Infection or disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Contraceptive pills
  • Other drugs

Your healthcare provider can tell you what your results are and what treatments you may need. They may need further testing before they can be tested.

Summary

Cortisol is a hormone that regulates your stress response, metabolism and many other important functions.

High cortisol is associated with severe anxiety and Cushing’s syndrome. Cushing’s disease is usually treated with an elastic bandage.

Low cortisol is associated with adenosine deficiency. It is usually treated with corticosteroid drugs.

Cortisol problems are diagnosed by blood, saliva and / or urine tests.

A word from verywell

Signs of high or low cortisol should be taken seriously. At the very least, you may need to make some lifestyle changes to manage stress. In extreme cases, the symptoms may indicate a serious health problem or a life-threatening crisis.

The good news is that cortisol-related problems can be treated and the results are usually good. Contact your healthcare provider to begin the process to find out what is causing your symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is a good cortisol level?

    In a healthy person, morning cortisol levels range from 10 to 20 micrograms per mcg / dL.

  • What are steroids?

    Steroids are hormones that occur naturally in your body. They include estrogen and testosterone as well as cortisone and other sex hormones. Artificial steroids are used as medicine. The most common benefit is as an anti-inflammatory.

  • Can Cushing’s Syndrome Be Cured?

    Yes, often Cushing can be saved. Although it may take a while for your symptoms to completely disappear. They may also leave you with related health problems, such as diabetes or depression.